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Michael J. Behe (Ph.D., biochemistry, University of Pennsylvania) is professor of biological sciences at Lehigh University in Pennsylvania. He has published extensively in both scholarly journals and publications such as the New York Times, Boston Review, American Spectator, and National Review. His book Darwin's Black Box (1996) was recently named by National Review and World magazine as one of the hundred most important books of the twentieth century.

David Berlinski (Ph.D., philosophy, Princeton) has taught philosophy, mathematics, and English at Stanford, Rutgers, the City University of New York, the University of Washington, the University of Puget Sound, San Jose State University, the University of Santa Clara, San Francisco State University, and the Universite de Paris at Jussieu. He is the author of A Tour of the Calculus (1996), The Advent of the Algorithm (2000), and Newton's Gift (2001).

Walter Bradley (Ph.D., materials science, University of Texas at Austin) has been a principal investigator on research grants and contracts for the National Science Foundation, NASA, the U.S. Department of Energy, and private corporations. Bradley has coauthored several seminal works on the origin of life, including articles in the journal the Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere and the book The Mystery of Life's Origin, which was republished in 1992.

Paul Chien (Ph.D., biology, University of California, Irvine) is professor (and ex-chair) in the Department of Biology at the University of San Francisco. Chien's work has been published in over a dozen technical journals, and he has spoken internationally -- from Brazil to mainland China, where he has also been involved in cooperative research programs. Chien recently edited and translated Darwin on Trial into Chinese.

Celeste Condit (Ph.D., rhetorical studies, University of Iowa) is a research professor in the Department of Speech Communication at the University of Georgia. She is the author of The Meanings of the Gene (1999). Condit has published widely in publications ranging from the Quarterly Journal of Speech to the American Journal of Human Genetics to Health Communication. She has received the Douglas Ehninger Award for distinguished rhetorical scholarship from the National Communication Association as well as a Golden Anniversary Monograph Award.

Mark DeForrest (J.D., Gonzaga University) is an attorney residing in Spokane, Washington. He is currently employed as a legal writing and research instructor at Gonzaga. DeForrest has published several articles in venues as diverse as the Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy, Seattle Times, Gonzaga Law Review, Across Borders, and Utah Law Review.

William A. Dembski (Ph.D., mathematics, University of Chicago; Ph.D., philosophy, University of Illinois, Chicago) is associate research professor in the conceptual foundations of science at Baylor University. He has published in such diverse publications as Journal of Theoretical Probability, Nous, Scottish Journal of Theology, and Zygon. He is also a regular contributor to Meta ( He is the author or editor of The Design Inference (1998), Mere Creation (1998), Intelligent Design (1999), Unapologetic Apologetics (with Jay Richards, 2001), Signs of Intelligence (with James Kushiner, 2001), No Free Lunch (2001), and The Design Revolution (2003).

David Depew is professor of communication studies and rhetoric of inquiry at the University of Iowa. He is associated with Iowa's internationally known Project on Rhetoric of Inquiry (POROI), an interdisciplinary research and teaching unit dedicated to applying rhetorical criticism and theorizing to scholarly and public controversies that involve claims to disciplinary knowledge. With Bruce H. Weber, he is coauthor of Darwinism Evolving: Systems Dynamics and the Genealogy of Natural Selection (1995). DePew and Weber also co-edited Evolution and Learning: The Baldwin Effect Reconsidered.

David K. DeWolf (J.D., Yale) is professor of law at the Gonzaga University Law School in Spokane, Washington. He has authored a number of books on the law, including Washington Tort Law and Practice (with K. W. Allen) and Washington Contract Law and Practice (with K. W. Allen and D. Barrier), as well as several technical and popular articles in publications such as National Review and the Wall Street Journal. He is a fellow of Discovery Institute's Center for Science and Culture. In 2000, DeWolf published (with Stephen Meyer and Mark DeForrest) an article in the University of Utah Law Review (republished in this volume). This article was cited by Senator Santorum of Pennsylvania in support of the provision that the Senator authored in support of a more scientifically-inclusive and controversy-based approach to teaching biological evolution. This provision is now part of the report language of the "No Child Left Behind" federal education act.

Steve Fuller (Ph.D., history and philosophy of science, University of Pittsburgh) is professor of sociology at the University of Warwick, U.K. He is best known for his research program of "social epistemology," the subject of a journal he founded in 1987. His latest books include The Governance of Science: Ideology and the Future of the Open Society (2000) and Thomas Kuhn: A Philosophical History for Our Times (2000).

Eugene Garver (Ph.D., philosophy, University of Chicago) is Regents Professor of Philosophy at St. John's University, where he has been teaching since 1985. He is the author of Machiavelli and the History of Prudence (1987) and Aristotle's Rhetoric: An Art of Character (1994). He recently co-edited Pluralism in Theory and Practice: Richard McKeon and American Philosophy (2000) and was guest editor of a special issue of Argumentation called "Reasoning: Perspectives from the New Philosophy and History of Science."

Phillip E. Johnson (J.D., University of Chicago) was professor of law at the University of California at Berkeley for over twenty-five years. In addition to being a distinguished and widely published American legal scholar, he is a well-known critic of Darwinism. His provocative Darwin on Trial (1991) has inspired academic symposia at universities such as Stanford, Harvard, Chicago, Cornell, Southern Methodist University, and the University of Texas. His most recent books are Defeating Darwinism by Opening Minds (1997), Objections Sustained (1998), The Wedge of Truth (2000), and The Right Questions (2002).

Michael Newton Keas (Ph.D., history of science, University of Oklahoma) is associate professor of natural science at Oklahoma Baptist University (OBU) and a codesigner of the OBU Planetarium. He has contributed articles to scholarly anthologies and journals, including the American Chemical Society's Nobel Laureates in Chemistry (1901-1992) and the German centennial celebration of A. W. Hofmann's death, Die Allianz von Wissenschaft und Industrie: August Wilhelm Hofmann (1818-1892): Zeit, Werk, Wirkung.

Donald Kennedy (Ph.D., biology, Harvard University) served for a year as provost and for twelve years as president emeritus of Stanford University. During that time, he also continued his work on health and environmental policy issues as a member of the Board of Directors of the Health Effects Institute (a nonprofit research organization devoted to mobile source emissions), Clean Sites, Inc. (a similar organization devoted to toxic waste cleanup), and the California Nature Conservancy. Kennedy is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society.

Brig Klyce studied English at Princeton University and received a Bachelor Architecture degree from the University of Tennessee in 1975. He began his study of panspermia as an avocation in 1981. After twenty years in the industrial laundry business, in 1995 he launched Acorn Enterprises LLC, a research and publishing company focused on panspermia. He maintains a website about the strong version of panspermia, which he hopes to rename "cosmic ancestry," at

Malcolm Lancaster is a retired professor of clinical medicine from the University of Texas at San Antonio.

John Lyne (Ph.D., University of Wisconsin) is professor and chair of the Department of Communication at the University of Pittsburgh, where he is also a resident fellow at the Center for Philosophy of Science and a member of the graduate faculty in Bioethics and Health Law. Lyne's work has appeared in such journals as the Quarterly Journal of Speech, Social Epistemology, Journal of Medical Humanities, and Cultural Studies. He has coauthored a book with Henry F. Howe on sociobiology and evolutionary theory and was series editor-in-chief for the Rhetoric of the Human Sciences book series for the University of Wisconsin Press.

Gordon C. Mills (Ph.D., biochemistry, University of Michigan) spent thirty-five years on the medical school teaching and research faculty at the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston. For the past twelve years, he has applied his research training and experience to developing a theistic view of evolution and the origin of life that he refers to as a "Design Theory of Progressive Creation." Mills's work has been published in Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith, Origins and Design, and Christian Scholar's Review.

Paul Nelson (Ph.D., philosophy of biology, University of Chicago) is Senior Fellow at the Discovery Institute's Center for the Science and Culture. He has published articles in such journals as Biology and Philosophy, Zygon, Rhetoric and Public Affairs, and Touchstone and chapters in the anthologies Mere Creation, Signs of Intelligence, and Intelligent Design, Creationism, and Its Critics (MIT Press 2001). Nelson edits the journal Origins and Design.

Warren A. Nord (Ph.D., philosophy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill) has taught the philosophy of religion at the University of North Carolina--Chapel Hill and been director of the university's program in the Humanities and Human Values since 1979. Nord is the author of more than thirty articles and two books, Religion and American Education: Rethinking a National Dilemma, and (with Charles C. Haynes) Taking Religion Seriously Across the Curriculum.

Massimo Pigliucci (Doctorate in Genetics, University of Ferrara, Italy; Ph.D., botany, University of Connecticut) is an associate professor at the University of Tennessee in Knoxville, where he teaches ecology and evolutionary biology. He has published fifty technical papers and two books on evolutionary biology (Phenotypic Evolution, with Carl Schlichting, and Phenotypic Plasticity: Beyond Nature vs. Nurture). Pigliucci has been awarded several times the Oak Ridge National Labs award for excellence in research and has won the prestigious Dobzhansky Prize from the Society for the Study of Evolution, of which he is now vice president. As a skeptic, he has published in national magazines such as Free Inquiry, Skeptic, Skeptical Inquirer, Philosophy Now, and Secular Nation.

Alvin Plantinga (Ph.D., philosophy, Yale) is a founding member and past president of the Society of Christian Philosophers. He is the author of God and Other Minds, The Nature of Necessity, Warrant: The Current Debate, Warrant and Proper Function, and Warranted Christian Belief.

William Provine is professor in the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and in the Department of History at Cornell University; he is also the Charles A. Alexander Professor of Biological Sciences. He is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and has held a Guggenheim Fellowship. In 1988, he won Cornell's Clark Distinguished Teaching Award.

Marcus Ross (M.S., paleontology, South Dakota School of Mines; Ph.D. candidate, University of Delaware) is a doctoral student in paleontology at the University of Delaware. In the summer of 2000, Ross traveled to southern China to study the famous Cambrian fossils near Chengjiang. He recently presented a poster at the Geological Society of America outlining a novel method for measuring increases in biological complexity as they arise the in fossil record.

Michael Ruse (Ph.D., philosophy of biology, University of Bristol) is the Lucyle T. Werkmeister Professor of Philosophy at Florida State University. He is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and has been awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship and a Killam Fellowship. He has written or edited several books, including Can a Darwinian Be a Christian? The Relationship between Science and Religion, and Mystery of Mysteries: Is Evolution a Social Construction? Ruse is the founding editor of Biology and Philosophy. He is the series editor of the Philosophy and Biology series for Cambridge University Press.

Bruce Weber (Ph.D., chemistry, University of California, San Diego) is Professor of Biochemistry Emeritus at California State University--Fullerton and Robert H. Woodworth Professor of Science and Natural Philosophy at Bennington College. He is an elected Fellow of the Linnean Society (London). He is coauthor, with David Depew, of Darwinism Evolving: Systems Dynamics and the Genealogy of Natural Selection (1995). He is also director of the Los Angeles Basin California State University Minority International Research Training Program.

Jonathan Wells (Ph.D., molecular and cell biology, University of California, Berkeley; Ph.D., religious studies, Yale University) has published articles in Development, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, BioSystems, Scientist, and American Biology Teacher. He is also author of the book Charles Hodge's Critique of Darwinism (1988) and the book Icons of Evolution: Why Much of What We Teach about Evolution Is Wrong (2000).

Chandra Wickramasinghe (Sc.D., University of Cambridge) is professor at Cardiff University of Wales. Jointly with Sir Fred Hoyle, he was awarded the International Dag Hammarskjold Gold Medal for Science in 1986, and in 1992 he was decorated by the president of Sri Lanka with the titular honor of Vidya Jyothi. He was awarded the International Sahabdeen Prize for Science in 1996. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts and a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society.